Stammering or Stuttering is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the person who stutters is unable to produce sounds.

The term stuttering is most commonly associated with involuntary sound

डॉ. काजल वर्मा

repetition, but it also encompasses the abnormal hesitation or pausing before speech, referred to by people who stutter as blocks, and the prolongation of certain sounds, usually vowels and semivowels.

For many people who stutter, repetition is the primary problem. Blocks and prolongations are learned mechanisms to mask repetition, as the fear of repetitive speaking in public is often the main cause of psychological unease.

Causes
– Researchers are still studying the underlying causes of persistent stuttering. A combination of factors may be involved. Possible causes of persistent stuttering include:

#Abnormalities in speech motor control.
Some evidence indicates that abnormalities in speech motor control, such as timing, sensory and motor coordination, are implicated.

#Genetics. Stuttering tends to run in families. It appears that stuttering can result from inherited (genetic) abnormalities in the language centers of the brain.

#Medical conditions. Stuttering can sometimes result from a stroke, trauma or other brain injury.

Mental health problems. In rare, isolated cases, emotional trauma can lead to stuttering

Symptoms
Stuttering signs and symptoms may include:

· Difficulty starting a word, sentence or phrase

· Prolonging a word or sounds within a word

· Repetition of a sound, syllable or word

· Brief silence for certain syllables or pauses within a word (broken word)

· Addition of extra words such as “um” if difficulty moving to the next word is anticipated

· Excess tension, tightness or movement of the face or upper body to produce a word

· Anxiety about talking

· Limited ability to effectively communicate

The speech difficulties of stuttering may be accompanied by:

· Rapid eye blinks

· Tremors of the lips or jaw

· Facial tics

· Head jerks

· Clenching fists

Stuttering may be worse when you’re excited, tired or under stress, or when you feel self-conscious, hurried or pressured. Situations such as speaking in front of a group or talking on the phone can be particularly difficult for people who stutter.

However, most people who stutter can speak without stuttering when they talk to themselves and when they sing or speak in unison with someone else.

Risk factors– Factors that increase the risk of stuttering include:

# Having relatives who stutter. Stuttering tends to run in families.

# Delayed childhood development. Children who have developmental delays or other speech problems may be more likely to stutter.

# Being male. Males are much more likely to stutter than females are.

# Stress. Stress in the family, high parental expectations or other types of pressure can worsen existing stuttering.

Complications
Stuttering can lead to:

· Low self-esteem

· Problems communicating with others

· Not speaking or avoiding situations that require speaking

· Loss of social, school or work participation and success

· Being bullied or teased

· Being anxious in social situations or being diagnosed with social anxiety disorder

Homeopathic Treatment and Management
Homeopathic treatment, speech therapy techniques, psychotherapy and hypnotherapy helps significantly in speech, and reduces the stress and improves quality of life of people who stutter.Homeopathic medicines like stramonium, lycopodium, hyoscymus, selenium, calc carb ets after complete case taking and with holistic approach can provide relief from the symptoms by fixing flawed nervous functions, improve motor coordination and modify the vocal apparatus.

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